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Synthèse des entretiens avec les associations et institutions de Huy sur leur rapport à la diversité

Introduction

Au sein de la population hutoise ces dix dernières années, on a dénombré 107 nationalité. Ces dernières années ont été synonymes d’une augmentation des personnes étrangères provenant des pays européens hors Union Européenne (principalement des pays de l’Est et des Balkans), africains (Afrique Sub-Saharienne), asiatiques et américains (Amérique du Sud). On recense par
exemple des Arméniens, des Iraniens ou encore des Mexicains.A ce jour, la ville de Huy comptabilise 7,58% de personnes de nationalité étrangère provenant de 91
pays, 5 continents et représentant 1650 personnes sur un total de 21663. Pour information, les trois nationalités les plus importantes parmi les habitants de Huy sont (dans l’ordre) : les Français, les Italiens suivis des Albanophones.
Toutefois, si nous comptabilisons dans notre étude les personnes ayant une nationalité étrangère, nous ne devons pas oublier les personnes d’origine étrangère, naturalisées. Dans la pratique, on double le pourcentage obtenu pour avoir l’ensemble de la population étrangère et d’origine étrangère d’une ville. C’est ainsi qu’on peut l’estimer pour la ville de Huy à environ 15%.
Les aspects positifs de la diversité à Huy sont multiples. Citons à titre d’exemple : des enfants issus des pays et de cultures très diverses, des candidats aux élections originairee d’Italie, d’ex-Yougoslavie, d’Afrique. (Un dizaine de candidats pour les élections 2012 dont un candidat polonais, ancien membre de Solidarnosc) ; une trentaine de restaurant de cuisines du monde : chinoises, thai, albanaises, marocaines, tunisiennes, italiennes, grecs, congolaises, vietnamiennes ;
des asbl, des clubs sprtifs des magasins d’alimentation, une chorale, des jumelages, un repas multiculturel annuel (Croix Rouge), un vivaire rwandais à la Sarte, une école supérieure d’ingénieur industriel (formation en agriculture des régions chaudes), ....7

Mais la diversité c’est aussi :

Peu d’emploi dans le secteur public pour les personnes d’origine étrangère (administration, asbl para-communale,...), peu de travail culturel, d’éducation permanente avec les associations et population migrantes.
Régulièrement des caricatures stygmatisantes et plus généralement, une image très négative des personnes d’origine étrangère, à Huy.
Peu d’élus au sein des différents organes politiques de la ville.
Très peu de réunion en 6 ans de la commission communale consultative de la multiculturalité
Des quartiers un peu guetto (ex : 80 % des habitants de Statte sont des personnes originaires de l’ex-Yougoslavie)
Des discriminations dans l’accès aux logements et à certains emplois. (principalement africains !)
Très peu de considération pour les autres cultes (juifs, musulman,...) (ex : place dans les cimetières communaux, très peu de lieu de rencontre,...)

Vivre ensemble dans la diversité ne va pas de soi.

D’octobre à décembre 2012, Hem ! est allé à la rencontre de 24 associations et institutions
susceptibles de rencontrer un public étranger ou d’origine étrangère. Il s’agissait de la première étape
d’une recherche qui doit se terminer en juin, sur les ressources de la diversité à Huy.

Méthodologie :

Il s’agit d’une recherche appliquée, une recherche locale, transparente et participative, qui part du terrain, le but étant de servir l’action de demain. Nous voulons utiliser les ressources existantes et les mettre en lien, les valoriser. Cette recherche est un prétexte de rencontre avec et sans la plateforme HEM ! pour plus d’intégration sociale. Ses résultats seront donc le produit d’une communauté, nous avons besoin de toutes les ressources existantes et la recherche créera des outils
pour tous.
Nous avons donc interrogé depuis le mois de septembre 2012 une vingtaine d’institutions (associatives, publiques ou privées) susceptibles d’accueillir en leur sein des personnes étrangères et/ou d’origine étrangère. Le choix s’est fait en fonction de plusieurs critères. Tout d’abord selon des critères géographiques pour balayer l’ensemble du territoire et ensuite selon des critères démographiques pour toucher le public plus grand possible, sachant que nous n’avons pas
uniquement le souci de la représentativité mais aussi et surtout celui du sens.
Dans un second temps (à partir de janvier 2013), nous allons rencontrer une cinquantaine d’habitants de Huy, des personnes étrangères (ou d’origine étrangère) et des Hutois de souche. Pour des raisons pratiques nous ne pourrons pas interroger l’ensemble de la population.

Voici les grandes lignes des constats que nous avons retiré de la première série d’entretiens.

Analyse

- 1er axe d’analyse : la perception de la diversité

Le public étranger est perçu plutôt comme très présent dans le domaine de l’insertion socio-professionnelle et encore plus dans le domaine de l’aide urgente. A l’inverse il semble très peu représenté dans le domaine de la culture.
Dans le domaine de la santé, ce public est modérément représenté ; de même que dans les services administratifs. Les chiffres correspondent plus ou moins au pourcentage d’étrangers résident officiellement à Huy.
Dans les écoles, on constate de fortes disparités : certaines écoles n’accueillent pratiquement pas d’étrangers, d’autres beaucoup plus.
De manière générale, la perception de ces populations dans les services rencontrés, est positive, mais la diversité est ressentie comme un défi complexe. Certaines associations ne comprenaient pas que nous leur posions des questions sur ce publi, ou n’avaient pas envie de différencier ces populations, par soucis d’équité, mais équité ne veut pas toujours dire égalité.

- 2eme axe d’analyse : les intentions, la position prise

Les intentions sont plutôt bonnes mais elles sont limitées par rapport aux moyens humains et financiers et pour certains par leurs missions.
Il y a beaucoup de débrouillardise interne : la femme de ménage parlant une langue étrangère traduit pour l’usager du service.
Certaines associations expriment clairement des besoins d’éclairage culturel, mais aussi des besoins en terme d’interprétariat ou de traduction, d’enseignement du français. Besoin aussi de mieux connaître les « autres » qui travaillent sur des problématiques connexes ou disposent de connaissances sur ces problématiques. Besoin d’éclairages juridiques par rapport aux questions de séjour, de mutuelle, ...

3ème axe d’analyse : mise en place d’actions spécifiques

Il n’y a pas souvent d’actions spécifiques mise en place par les institutions visitées, si ce n’est quelques services ou associations qui sont passé d’un public belge d’origine à un public étranger par la force des choses.
Beaucoup de débrouillardise, du cas par cas et de la réorientation vers d’autres services quand on les connaît.

-Conclusion.

Le bilan de ces entretiens est positif : nous vivons dans une ville colorée, nous bénéficions d’un riche tissus d’associations dont le personnel est en général motivé. Ces associations et institutions semblent surtout manquer de liens entre elles et d’outils spécifiques pour l’accueil des personnes étrangères. Mais elles offrent un large panel de services aux citoyens, qui concernent aussi les migrants. Il nous reste donc à fédérer nos efforts pour inventer des solutions en partenariat. C’est
aussi l’objet de notre rencontre du 18 décembre. Nous vous donnons d’ors et déjà rendez-vous dans 6 mois pour partager le résultat de nos recherches.

PDF - 39.7 ko
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    Synthèse des entretiens avec les associations et institutions de Huy sur leur rapport à la diversité

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